Milestones and Outputs


  • March 2010 Start-up meeting to outline plans for scientists & stakeholders. Hosted by the Freshwater Biological Association.
  • October 2013 Stakeholder meeting to summarise findings & discuss ways to communicate findings to widest audience. Hosted by CEH Lancaster.
  • Blog post re outcomes of the Stakeholder meeting

 Outputs - Papers & reports

  • Thackeray et al 2013 Food web de-synchronisation in England's largest lake: an assessment based upon multiple phenological metrics. Global Change Biology DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12326
  • Winfield et al 2012 Long-term changes in the diet of pike (Esox lucius), the top aquatic predator in a changing Windermere. Freshwater Biology 57:373-383
  • Smyntek et al 2012 Dissolved carbon dioxide concentration controls baseline stable carbon isotope signatures of a lake food web. Limnology & Oceanography 57:1292-1302

Outputs - Presentations

Stakeholder meeting 2013

National & International conferences

  • Maberly 2013 British Council workshop (Ecology of Inland Waters) - Climate change effects on the functioning of inland waters: pervasive influence or minor factor?
  • Maberly et al 2013 International Society of Limnology - Echoes in the ecosystem: top-down & bottom-up responses of Windermere to environmental perturbation
  • Thackeray et al 2013 Symposium for European Freshwater Sciences - Disentangling long-term responses of crustacean zooplankton to multiple stressors
  • Winfield et al 2013 Windermere Reflections - An Ice Age descendent, the Arctic charr, and modern water quality
  • Winfield et al 2013 American Fisheries Society Annual Meeting - Long-term changes in the diet of northern pike in a changing environment
  • Winfield et al 2012 University of Wolverhampton - Rare fish conservation in the English Lake District
  • Winfield et al 2012 University of Cumbria - Arctic charr in Windermere (and elsewhere in the U.K.)
  • Winfield et al 2012 Carlisle Natural History Society - Arctic charr ecology and status in Cumbria
  • Winfield et al 2012 Aarhus University, Denmark - Windermere: where charr, carps, carseys, climate change, culls and Queen collide
  • Smyntek et al 2012 ISOECOL - Isotopic niche metrics reveal the impact of an invasive species on a fish community
  • Grey 2012 Institute of Fisheries Management - Fish are what they eat
  • Maberly et al 2011 Freshwater Biological Association Annual meeting - Echoes in the ecosystem
  • Smyntek & Grey 2011 Symposium of European Freshwater Sciences - One pressure too many?
  • Smyntek et al 2011 Stable Isotope Mass Spectrometry Users Group - Predicting baseline d13C signatures of a lake food web using dissolved carbon dioxide

Milestones relative to hypotheses

  • Completion of a continuous zooplankton record for Windermere for the period 1979-2010, based upon data from >1300 archived samples. These data will allow us to detect changes in zooplankton abundance and composition in response to changes in fish predation and other environmental factors (Hypothesis 2)
  • 980 individual fish, 250 zooplankton and 140 macroinvertebrate samples were analysed for their stable isotope composition over 27 years (1985-2011) to track changes in fish diet and food web structure of Windermere over the course of the roach expansion. These data will be used to assess the impact of increased fish abundance on the zooplankton population (Hypothesis 2), the link between the roach expansion on the decline in Arctic charr (Hypothesis 4), and the implications of these changes on pike, the top predator in the lake (Hypothesis 5).
  • Adult pike winter diet has been examined from Windermere over the last 34 years allowing us to address Hypothesis 5 with a complementary approach. The importance of the Arctic charr and brown trout have decreased, while that of the perch, pike and roach have increased, particularly markedly in the more eutrophicated South Basin. See Winfield et al 2012 below.
  • Application of a roach bioenergetics model to estimate changes in the predation pressure faced by zooplankton populations in Windermere, as a result of increasing fish abundances. Preliminary analyses suggest that, between 1991 and 2010, an effect of increasing fish predation upon copepod populations can be detected. The results of this work were presented at the SEFS8 international conference in July 2013. This work is now being developed, to examine impacts upon other zooplankton species.
  • Monthly hydroacoustic data from 1991 to 2010 have been analysed to determine the abundance of planktivorous fish and combined with individual consumption rates from the literature to estimate changes in overall fish predation pressure on zooplankton in the north basin (Hypothesis 2).
  • Monthly hydroacoustic data from 5 years between 2003 and 2010 and angler catches from 2005 to 2010 have been analysed to determine the open-water abundance and spatio-temporal patterns of large pike in the north and south basins (Hypothesis 5).